HRI 2012 Tutorial 2: Cognitive Science and Socio-Cognitive Theory
Tutorial to be held: March 5, 2012, 8am-12pm
One of the strengths of the HRI community is that its practitioners come from a wide variety of professional disciplines. One consequence of this fact, however, is that many more practitioners are adept in the use of existing HRI techniques in their applications than are proficient in the principles of human cognition and social behavior that allow them to develop and rigorously evaluate new innovations. Moreover, even those who are well-schooled in these foundational principles may find the gap between theory and practice so great as to make it difficult to connect their knowledge to their research programmes. This tutorial provides a synopsis of key findings and theoretical advances from cognitive science and socio-cognitive theory, with examples of how the results of this research can be applied to the design of human-robotic systems.
Topics covered will run the gamut from basic cognitive science (e.g., perception, attention, learning and memory, information processing, multi-tasking, conscious awareness, individual differences) to socio-cognitive issues (e.g., theories of social interaction, dynamic functional allocation, mixed-initiative interaction, human-agent-robot teamwork, coactive design, theory of organizations). Additionally, the tutorial will address new technologies that attempt to leverage the current state of theory (e.g., neuroergonomics, brain-machine interfaces, detection of cognitive states, robotic prostheses and orthotics, cognitive and sensory prostheses). Throughout the tutorial, the presenters will give descriptions and demonstrations of working systems that exemplify the principles being taught. Separately, the presenters have given highly-successful tutorials on relevant subjects at workshops and conferences such as CHI and HCI International, as well as in a variety of industrial and government settings. In this tutorial, they propose to bring together their experience to bear on issues of specific interest to the HRI community.
The tutorial will be structured in three sessions organized around the basic themes: cognitive science, socio-cognitive issues, and new technologies. Each session will consist of interactive presentations by the tutorial organizers followed by a whole-group discussions. Throughout the presentations, videos and demonstrations of systems exemplifying the principles discussed will be included in order to provide a springboard for discussion and to help attendees bridge the gap between theory and practice.
No special prerequisites are needed for tutorial participants. Materials will be presented in a manner that may be readily understood and applied by individuals with no formal training in cognitive science or socio-cognitive theory. Through discussion of theoretical foundations and alternative approaches to HRI experimentation and practice, participants will be provided the knowledge to be thoughtful consumers of and contributors to research informed by these important scientific domains.
Speaker Contact Information
Speaker Biographical Sketches
Jeffrey M. Bradshaw (Ph.D., Cognitive Science, University of Washington) is a Senior Research Scientist at the Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC) where he leads the research group developing the KAoS policy and domain services framework and (with Marco Carvalho) the development of the Luna Agent Framework and the IHMC Cyber Framework. Formerly, he led research groups at The Boeing Company and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. Jeff has been a Fulbright Senior Scholar at EURISCO in Toulouse, France; an Honorary Visiting Researcher at the University of Edinburgh; a visiting professor at the Institut Cognitique at the University of Bordeaux; is former chair of ACM SIGART; and former chair of the RIACS Science Council for NASA Ames Research Center. He served as a member of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Emerging Cognitive Neuroscience Research in the Next Two Decades, as a scientific advisor to the Japanese NEC Technology Paradigm Shifts initiative, and as an advisor to the HCI and Visualization program at the German National AI Research Center (DFKI). He currently serves as a member of the Board on Global Science and Technology for the National Academies and as an external advisory board member of the Cognitive Science and Technology Program at Sandia National Laboratories. Jeff served for over a decade on the Board of Directors of the International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems. In 2011, he received the Web Intelligence Consortium Outstanding Contributions Award. He has many years of editorial board experience on professional journals and in the organization of international conferences and workshops. He serves as co-editor of the Human-Centered Computing Department for IEEE Intelligent Systems. Among many other publications, he edited the books Knowledge Acquisition as a Modeling Activity (with Ken Ford, Wiley, 1993), Software Agents (AAAI Press/The MIT Press, 1997), and Readings in Human-Centered Computing (with Robert Hoffman, IEEE, in press).
Jeff has participated in NASA Blue Sky Study Groups for the “Human-Centered Vision of Mars Exploration” and for the “Small Pressurized Rover.” From 2002-2006, his KAoS framework was used as part of a NASA series of annual two-week field tests of human-robot teams performing simulated planetary surface exploration at the Mars Desert Research Station. Jeff was sponsored by DHS to undertake detailed simulation studies of the use of human-robot teams to secure facilities at Port Everglades. He has also led the ONR-sponsored NAIMT and Coordinated Operations projects where a team of humans and heterogeneous robots performed field exercises aimed at port reconnaissance, and robot-assisted detection and apprehension of intruders.
Chris Forsythe (Ph.D., Experimental Psychology; M.S., Biopsychology, University of Memphis) is a Distinguished Member of the Technical Staff for Sandia’s Cognitive Science and Applications Department. Chris helped found Sandia National Laboratories’ cognitive systems program in 1999, including playing a pivotal role in activities leading to Sandia establishing a Grand Challenge in cognition and establishing Cognitive Science and Technology as a lab-wide Focus Area. Chris is co-inventor and patent holder for Sandia's computational framework for modeling human cognition and initiated the development of automated knowledge capture technologies. Chris currently manages a portfolio of projects that encompasses research addressing individual differences in the neurophysiology of human performance, advanced training technologies development, and human-machine systems integration,. Chris serves as Sandia interface to government sponsors that include Office of Naval Research, Naval Air Systems Command and DARPA. Chris has served on government advisory panels for DARPA, Office of Naval Research and DTRA. In 2006, he received the DARPA IPTO Outstanding Service award and in 2009 was given the Federal Laboratories Consortium Mid-Continent Notable Technology Development Award. Chris has over forty peer-reviewed publications and has edited two books in the fields of cognitive psychology, human factors and intelligent systems. He has won three best paper awards from the Human-Computer Interaction International Conference (2009, 2011).
Bradshaw, J. M., Dignum, V., Jonker, C., and Sierhuis, M. (eds.) Special issue on Human-Agent-Robot Teamwork. IEEE Intelligent Systems, Jan/Feb 2012, in preparation.
Bradshaw, J. M., Paul Feltovich, and Matthew Johnson. Human-Agent Interaction. In Handbook of Human-Machine Interaction, edited by Guy Boy. Ashgate, 2011, pp. 283-302.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., ed. Software Agents. Cambridge, MA: The AAAI Press/The MIT Press, 1997.
Bradshaw, Jeffrey M., Paul Feltovich, Hyuckchul Jung, Shri Kulkarni, William Taysom, and Andrzej Uszok. Dimensions of adjustable autonomy and mixed-initiative interaction. In Agents and Computational Autonomy: Potential, Risks, and Solutions. edited by Matthias Nickles, Michael Rovatsos and Gerhard Weiss, 17-39. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2004.
Dixon, K., Hagermann, K., Basilico, J., Forsythe, C. Siegfried, S. Schrauf, M. & Kincses, W. (2009). Improved team performance using EEG- and context-based cognitive-state classifications for a vehicle crew. Proceedings of the International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, San Diego, CA.
Ford, K.M., and J.M. Bradshaw, eds. Knowledge Acquisition as Modeling. New York City, NY: John Wiley, 1993.
Forsythe, C. (2005). Cognitive modeling for augmented cognition. In D.D. Schmorrow (ed.) Foundations of Augmented Cognition, Lawrence Earlbaum, Mahwah NJ, 546-547.
Forsythe, C. & Giordano, J. (2011). The need for a U.S. strategy addressing brain science and its ramifications for national security. Synthesis.
Forsythe, C., Bernard, M., Xavier, P., Abbott, R., Spped, A. & Brannon, N. (2005). Using psychologically plausible operator models to enhance operator performance. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 51st Annual Meeting, Denver, CO.
Forsythe, C., Goldsmith, T.E. & Bernard, M.L. (2005). Cognitive Systems: Cognitive Models in Systems Design, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ.
Giordano, J., Forsythe, C. & Olds, J. (2010). Response to Marks: Neuroscience, Neurotechnology and National Security: Toward an Ethic of Responsible Action and Need for Precautionary Process, American Journal of Bioethics.
Green, C., Griffin, D., Blascovich, J., Bradshaw, et al. Emerging Cognitive Neuroscience Technologies and Applications. National Research Council. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2008.
Johnson, Matthew, Jeffrey M. Bradshaw, Paul J. Feltovich, Robert R. Hoffman, Catholijn Jonker, Birna van Riemsdijk, and Maarten Sierhuis. Beyond Cooperative Robotics: The Central Role of Interdependence in Coactive Design. IEEE Intelligent Systems, May/June 2011 (vol. 26 iss. 3), pp. 81-88.
Magliano, J.P., Skowronski, J.J., Britt, M.A., Guss, D. & Forsythe, C. (2008). What do you know: How perceivers use goals to make inferences about others. Cognition, 106, 594-632.
Trumbo, M, Stevens, S., Hendrickson, S., Abbott, R. Haass, M. & Forsythe, C. (2011). Individual differences and the science of human performance. Proceedings of the International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Orlando, FL.